System Diagram

A method for describing a system at the highest level possible

discovery-loop-why loop position

No. People



15 minutes or more, as required to flesh out all the components of the diagram




Facilitator, Product owner, Technical and business Architects, Developers

What is it?

A system diagram is a simple and very high level description of a system that exists or needs to be built. It is a simple diagram that can be drawn collaboratively in little time. It can help a team get a clear, complete, and common understanding of a system.

The components of a system diagram are:

  • The Purpose
  • The System Boundary
  • One or more Inputs
  • One or more Outputs
  • One or more Subsystems
  • One or more Feedback Loops

A picture of an example system diagram depicting a vending machine for train tickets

Why use it?

The main enemy of system architects and software engineers is complexity. Complexity leads to a poor understanding of a system, which in turn can make the task of modifying or even using the system very challenging. The complexity of a system is reflected in its descriptions and documentation. The task of explaining a system to an audience of non technical people can be daunting. The System Diagram provides a simple method to solve this problem.

Identifying and describing all the components of a System Diagram should enable a team to get a good understanding of the system. If the diagram is too complex, perhaps it needs to be broken down into multiple integrated systems.

How to use it?

  1. Gather the team around a blank whiteboard
  2. Begin by drawing a large box in the middle of the canvas; this is your System Boundary
  3. As a team, define the main Purpose of the system in one brief sentence and write it above the box

    • If you struggle to define the Purpose in just one sentence, then the system might be too complex to describe, and you’ll need to split it into multiple systems and diagrams
  4. Define one or more Inputs that the system will receive from external actors

  5. Define one or more Outputs that the system will provide to external actors

  6. Define one or more Subsystems that are inside the Boundar; these typically process the inputs, but may perform other tasks as well

  7. Define one or more Feedback loops that the system has in place to continously improve itself


  • Facilitator: Moderate
  • Participants: Easy

Facilitation Materials Needed

Digital Variation:

  • any collaborative diagramming tool (such as Miro or Gliphy)

Physical Variation:

  • a large whiteboard
  • whiteboard markers

Further Information

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